The right ‘5-a-day’ mix is ​​2 servings of fruit and 3 servings of vegetables for longevity — ScienceDaily

According to new research published today by the American Heart Association, the study, representing nearly 2 million adults worldwide, found that eating about five servings of fruits and vegetables per day, including two servings of fruit and three servings of vegetables, is probably the best amount for a long life. Flagship Journal circulation.

Diets rich in fruits and vegetables help reduce the risk of numerous chronic health conditions, including cardiovascular disease and cancer, which are leading causes of death. Yet, according to the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, only one in 10 adults eat enough fruits or vegetables.

“Although groups such as the American Heart Association recommend four to five servings each of fruits and vegetables per day, consumers may receive inconsistent messages about the definition of optimal daily intake of fruits and vegetables such as recommended amounts and which foods should be included and avoided.” Dong D., the lead author of the study. said Wang, MD, ScD, an epidemiologist, nutritionist and member of the medical faculty at Harvard Medical School and Brigham and Women’s Hospital in Boston.

Wang and colleagues analyzed data from the Nurses’ Health Study and the Health Professionals Follow-up Study, two studies that followed 100,000 adults for up to 30 years. Both datasets include detailed dietary information collected repeatedly every two to four years. For this analysis, the researchers also collected fruit and vegetable intake and mortality data from 26 studies that included nearly 1.9 million participants in 29 countries and regions in North and South America, Europe, Asia, Africa, and Australia.

Analysis of all studies, including a combination of more than 2 million participants, revealed:

  • Eating about five servings of fruits and vegetables per day had the lowest risk of death. Eating more than five servings was not associated with additional benefits.
  • Eating about two servings of fruit per day and three servings of vegetables per day was associated with the greatest longevity.
  • Compared to those who ate two servings of fruit and vegetables per day, participants who ate five servings of fruit and vegetables per day had a 13% lower risk of death from all causes; 12% lower risk of death from cardiovascular disease, including heart disease and stroke; 10% lower risk of dying from cancer; and a 35% lower risk of death from respiratory diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).
  • Not all foods that can be considered fruits and vegetables offer the same benefits. For example: Starchy vegetables, such as peas and corn, fruit juices and potatoes were not associated with a reduced risk of death from all causes or certain chronic diseases.
  • On the other hand, green leafy vegetables, including spinach, lettuce and kale, and fruits and vegetables rich in beta-carotene and vitamin C, such as citrus fruits, berries and carrots, have shown benefits.

“Our analysis of two cohorts of men and women in the United States yielded similar results to 26 cohorts from around the world, which supports the biological plausibility of our findings and suggests that these findings can be applied to larger populations,” Wang said.

Wang said the study identifies optimal intake levels for fruits and vegetables and supports the evidence-based, concise public health message of ‘5-a-day’, which means people should ideally eat five fruits and vegetables a day. “This amount probably provides the greatest benefit in preventing major chronic diseases and is relatively achievable and acceptable for the general population,” he said. “We also found that not all fruits and vegetables provide the same degree of benefit, even though current dietary recommendations generally treat all types of fruits and vegetables equally, including starchy vegetables, fruit juices, and potatoes.”

A limitation of the study is that it is observational, showing an association between fruit and vegetable consumption and risk of death; It does not provide a direct cause and effect relationship.

“The American Heart Association recommends filling at least half of your plate with fruits and vegetables at each meal,” says Anne Thorndike, MD, MPH, chair of the American Heart Association’s nutrition committee and an associate professor of medicine at Harvard Medical School in Boston. “This research provides strong evidence for the lifelong benefits of eating fruits and vegetables and recommends daily target amounts for optimal health. Fruits and vegetables are naturally nutrient-packed sources that can be included in most meals and snacks, and they are essential. Our heart and body To keep healthy.”

Co-authors are Yanping Li, PhD; Shilpa N. Bhupatiraju, PhD; Bernard A. Rosner, PhD; Qi Sun, MD, Sc.D.; Edward L. Giovannucci; Eric B. Ream, Sc.D.; JoAnn E. Manson, MD, MPH, Dr.PH, FAHA; Walter C. Willett, MD, Dr.PH; Meir J. Stampfer, MD, Dr.PH; and Frank B. Hu, MD, Ph.D

The study was funded by the National Institutes of Health, the American Heart Association and the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases.

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